科技组织
美国科技咨询委员会
President`s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology
2020-09-30        编辑:段玉蕤




National Science and Technology Council, NSTC

Executive Office of the PresidentOffice of Science and Technology Policy, OSTP)


Science Advisor to the PresidentPresident`s council of Advisors on Science and Technology, PCAST

National Academy of Sciences,NASAmerican Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS)

PCAST


 
 

 

1933SAB)

1950

(science advisory committee, SAC) SAC(office of defense mobilization, ODM)

1957SACpresident`s science advisory committeePSAC

PSAC

PSAC


PSACPSAC1973PSAC

19761976(OSTP)PSAC

1990PCAST(president`s council of advisors on science and technology)使

PCASTPCAST

20187Kelvin Droegemeier


 
 

 

PCAST

PCASTPCAST

PCAST

1.广;

2.NSTCPCAST




 



   
三、机构设置    

   



PCAST由科技政策办公室(OSTP)管理,由每一届总统通过行政命令(executive order)来建立该届PCAST。科技政策办公室(OSTP)应为PCAST提供财务和行政支持。经费每年不得超过20万美元,PCAST不支付其成员薪酬,但可以就差旅费报销。



PCAST可以设立分委会,奥巴马时期的PCAST下设了健康与生命科学委员会、科学、技术、工程和数学(STEM)教育委员会、跨学科委员会、能源气候变换与环境委员会、创新与技术委员会(PITAC)、经济发展委员会和国际安全委员会。


每一届的PCAST成员人数不等,小布什时期规定成员人数不超过25人,奥巴马时期则规定不得超过21人。


PCAST中,设立两位联合主席,一人必须是总统指定的联邦政府官员(一般是OSTP主任、即总统科学顾问), 另一人则为总统指定的科学家。其余成员则为总统指定的来自联邦政府以外的各部门杰出代表和个人,可以是来自大学、企业或非政府组织的成员。


奥巴马时期的PCAST是19人组,11人来自大学,6人来自企业人员,1人来自非政府组织,1人来自政府。8年来共有过25人担任过PCAST的成员。


联合主席John Holdren曾担任哈佛大学肯尼迪政府学院环境政策教授和科学、技术和公共政策项目主任。他还兼任哈佛大学地球与行星科学系环境科学与政策教授,以及独立的非营利性伍兹霍尔研究中心主任。他是美国国家科学院、国家工程院和美国艺术与科学学院的成员,以及美国科学促进协会前主席和麦克阿瑟基金会奖学金获得者。


联合主席Eric Lander是麻省理工学院生物学教授和哈佛医学院系统生物学教授,是人类基因组计划主要领导者。


副主席William H. Press,现任德克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校计算机科学教授,在计算机科学、天体物理学和国际安全方面拥有广泛的专业知识。


副主席Maxine Savitz,在公共和私营部门管理研究、开发和实施计划方面拥有30多年的经验。


其余成员包括气候变化科学和生态学领域专家、医学专家、天体物理学和国际安全政策专家、物理学教授、电子工程和计算机科学教授、新媒体领域专家、科技公司总裁、纳米技术专家、化学教授、微软战略官、Google执行官、生物学教授、地质学教授等。具体名单如下:


1.Co-Chair Harold Varmus,President, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center  (currently Lewis Thomas University Professor of Medicine at Weill Cornell Medicine)


2.Wanda Austin, President and CEO (retired), Aerospace Corporation


3.Rosina Bierbaum, Professor (and former Dean) of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan and the Roy F. Westin Chair in Natural Economics, University of Maryland


4.Christine Cassel, Planning Dean,Kaiser Permanente School of Medicine


5.Christopher Chyba, Professor of Astrophysical Sciences and International Affairs and former Director, Program on Science & Global Security, Princeton University


6.S. James Gates Jr., John S. Toll Professor of Physics and Director, Center for String and Particle Theory, University of Maryland, College Park


7.Mark Gorenberg, Founder and Managing Director, Zetta Venture Partners


8.Susan L. Graham, Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Emerita, University of California, Berkeley


9.Shirley Ann Jackson, President, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute


10.Richard Levin, President, Yale University (currently CEO, Coursera)


11.Michael McQuade, Senior Vice President, Science & Technology, United Technologies Corporation


12.Chad Mirkin, George B. Rathmann Professor of Chemistry, Professor of Medicine, Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Professor of Chemical and Biological Engineering, and Director of the International Institute for Nanotechnology, Northwestern University


13.Mario Molina, Distinguished Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego


14.Ernest Moniz, Cecil and Ida Green Professor of Physics and Engineering Systems and Director, Laboratory for Energy and the Environment, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (currently U.S. Secretary of Energy)


15.Craig Mundie, President, Mundie Associates; formerly Senior Advisor to the CEO and Chief Research and Strategy Officer, Microsoft


16.Ed Penhoet, Director, Alta Partners, and Professor of Biology, University of California, Berkeley


17.Barbara Schaal, Dean of Arts and Sciences and Professor of Biology at Washington University in St Louis


18.David E. Shaw, Chief Scientist, D. E. Shaw Research


19.Eric Schmidt,Executive Chairman, Alphabet


20.Daniel Schrag, Hooper Professor of Geology and Professor of Environmental Science and Engineering, Harvard University, and Director of the Harvard University Center for Environment


21.Ahmed Zewail (deceased 2016), Linus Pauling Chair Professor of Chemistry, Professor of Physics, and Director, Physical Biology Center for Ultrafast Science and Technology, California Institute of Technology




 
四、工作机制  

 




PCAST通过定期开会和撰写研究报告的形式进行工作。



(一)定期开会



会议每年进行5-6次,主要是响应来自总统和总统科学顾问的咨询要求,回应国家科学技术委员会(NSFC)的要求。会议内容全部公开,公众可以进行评论,2015年之后还可以对会议进行网络直播。





主要议题有以下几方面:


1.讨论现有科技计划执行情况,评估研发计划实施情况,比如纳米技术(NNI)和先进制造;


2.讨论联邦科研机构的科研活动,比如国防高级研究计划署(DARPA)、国家标准与技术研究所(NIST)的科研计划;


3.讨论其他部门重要的咨询研究,如国家科学院研究委员会NRC的咨询报告;


4.讨论PCAST的研究报告及科学发展;


5.交流PCAST的活动。



(二)研究报告



PCAST还需要撰写给总统的研究报告,并进行公开发表。奥巴马时期PCAST一共为总统撰写了36份报告,其中包括7份小报告(letter report)。


1.《美国2009年甲型H1N1流感的准备情况的报告》Report to the President on U.S. Preparations for 2009-H1N1 Influenza August 2009


2.《国家纳米技术倡议第三次评估报告》Report to the President and Congress on the Third Assessment of the National Nanotechnology Initiative March 2010


3.《为迎接大流行性流感的挑战,流感疫苗生产企业再造工作以的报告》Report to the President on Reengineering the Influenza Vaccine Production Enterprise to Meet the Challenges of Pandemic Influenza August 2010


4.《准备与启发:为了美国的未来,K-12 STEM教育报告》Report to the President: Prepare and Inspire: K-12 Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) for America’s Future September 2010


5.《通过整合联邦能源政策加速能源技术变革的步伐》Report to the President on Accelerating the Pace of Change in Energy Technologies Through an Integrated Federal Energy Policy November 2010


6.《通过健康信息技术以改善美国人的医疗保健的实现路径的报告》Report to the President on Realizing the Full Potential of Health Information Technology to Improve Healthcare for Americans: The Path Forward December 2010


7.《关于设计数字化未来:联邦资助的网络与网络研究与开发的报告》Report to the President and Congress on Designing a Digital Future: Federally Funded Research and Development in Networking and Information Technology December 2010


8.《关于确保美国在先进制造业领导地位的报告》Report to the President on Ensuring American Leadership in Advanced Manufacturing June 2011


9.《关于维护环境资本:保护社会与经济的报告》Report to the President on Sustaining Environmental Capital: Protecting Society and the Economy July 2011


10.《致力于优胜:在STEM领域多培养100万大学生》Report to the

President: Engage to Excel: Producing One Million Additional College Graduates with Degrees in Science, Technology,Engineering, and Mathematics February 2012


11.《 关于国家纳米技术倡议第四次评估的报告》Report to the President and Congress on the Fourth Assessment of the National Nanotechnology Initiative April 2012


12.《获取国内先进制造业竞争优势的报告》Report to the President on Capturing Domestic Competitive Advantage in Advanced Manufacturing July 2012


13.《实现政府掌控的频谱资源的全部潜力以刺激经济》(Report to the President on Realizing the Full Potential of Government-Held Spectrum to Spur Economic Growth July 2012


14.《推动药物发明,开发和评估创新的报告》 Report to the President on Propelling Innovation in Drug Discovery, Development, and Evaluation September 2012


15.《转型与机遇:美国研究企业的未来》Report to the President on Transformation and Opportunity: The Future of the U.S. Research Enterprise November 2012


16.《农业预备与农业研究事业》Report to the President on Agricultural Preparedness and the Agricultural Research Enterprise December 2012


17.《关于设计数字化未来:联邦资助的网络与网络研究与开发的报告》Report to the President and Congress on Designing a Digital Future: Federally Funded Research and Development in Networking and Information Technology January 2013


18.《关于气候变化的报告》Letter Report to the President on Climate Change March 2013


19.《关于加强国家网络安全的直接机会》Report to the President on Immediate Opportunities for Strengthening the Nation's Cybersecurity  November 2013


20.《关于教育技术 - 高等教育的报告》Letter Report to the President on Education Technology – Higher Education December 2013


21.《关于大数据和隐私的报告:技术观点》Report to the President on Big Data and Privacy: A Technological Perspective May 2014


22.《更好的医疗保健和更低的成本:通过系统工程加速改进》Report to the President on Better Health Care and Lower Costs: Accelerating Improvement through Systems Engineering May 2014


23.《与抗生素耐药性斗争》Report to the President on Combating Antibiotic Resistance September 2014


24.《为有针对性的技能培训和使才能与工作相配而服务的信息技术》 Letter Report to the President on Information Technology for Targeting Job-Skills Training and Matching Talent to Jobs September 2014


25.《国家纳米技术倡议第五次评估》Report to the President and Congress on The Fifth Assessment of the National Nanotechnology Initiative October 2014


26.《关于加速美国先进制造业的报告》Report to the President on Accelerating U.S. Advanced Manufacturing October 2014


27.《关于确保联邦资助的信息技术研究与开发领导力的报告》Report to the President and Congress on Ensuring Leadership in Federally Funded Research and Development in Information Technology August 2015


28.《老年美国人与听力损失:必须改进听力技术》Letter Report to the President on Aging America & Hearing Loss: Imperative of Improved Hearing Technologies October 2015


29.《私营部门适应气候变化的成就》Letter Report to the President on Private Sector Efforts in Adaptation to Climate Change November 2015


30.《技术和城市未来》Report to the President on Technology and the Future of Cities February 2016


31.《老年人的独立,技术和联系》Report to the President on

Independence, Technology, and Connection in Older Age March 2016


32.《刑事法庭的法医学:确保特征的科学有效性—— 比较方法》Report to the President on Forensic Science in Criminal Courts: Ensuring Scientific Validity of Feature-Comparison Methods September 2016


33.《防止生物攻击所需行动》Letter Report to the President on Action Needed to Protect against Biological Attack November 2016


34.《确保国家饮用水安全的报告》Report to the President on Science and Technology to Ensure the Safety of the Nation’s Drinking Water December 2016


35.《确保美国在半导体领域的长期领导力的报告》Ensuring Long-Term U.S. Leadership in Semiconductors January 2017


36.《关于国家纳米技术倡议第六次评估的报告》Letter Report to the President and Congress on the Sixth Assessment of the National Nanotechnology Initiative January 2017




 
五、报告及影响  

 



奥巴马政府非常重视PCAST的咨询意见,PCAST 的一些咨询工作对政策制定和实施产生了重要的实质性影响,如对能源政策、STEM 教育政策等。2017 年 1 月 6 日 PCAST 的最后一次会上,PCAST 总结了委员会的成绩,举出了几项直接影响政策的报告,包括以下内容:


1.《通过整合联邦能源政策加速能源技术变革的步伐》(Accelerating the Pace of Change in Energy Technologies Through an Integrated Federal Energy Policy 2010),为总统的“气候变化行动” 做出了重要的贡献,并促使能源部建立了四年一度的技术评议和跨部门能源评议制度。


2.《准备与启发:为了美国的未来,K-12 STEM教育报告》(Prepare and Inspire: K-12 Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Education for America’s Future 2010)《致力于优胜:在STEM领域多培养100万大学生》(Engage to Excel: Producing One Million Additional College Graduates with Degrees in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics 2012),不仅知会了科技政策办公室、国内政策委员会和能源部关于STEM教育的影响,而且催化了众多独立机构和教育工作者开展STEM教育行动。


3.《实现政府-掌握的频谱资源来刺激经济的潜力》(Realizing the Full Potential of Government-Held Spectrum to Spur Economic Growth 2012)催生了2013 年的一份总统备忘录,以及2016 年联邦通信委员会(FCC)批准了一个频谱共享的 150 MHz的公民宽带无线服务“创新带”。


4.《与抗生素耐药性斗争》(Combating Antibiotic Resistantance 2014)催生了一项行政命令,为国家战略与行动计划提供了依据,让美国人和他们的卫生保健提供者领先危及生命的病菌一步。


5.《老年美国人与听力损失:必须改进听力技术》(Aging America and

Hearing Loss: Imperative of Improved Hearing Technologies 2015)促使食品和药品管理局(FDA)2016 年宣布开始允许非处方的听力辅助设备出售。






 
六、附论:美国科学促进会  

 



联邦体制外还有美国科学促进会(American Association for the Advancement of Science,AAAS)提供科学咨询。



美国科学促进会(AAAS)成立于1848年,是一个国际性非营利组织,也是第一个在国家层面促进科学和工程发展并代表其所有学科利益的常设机构。


其宗旨是促进科学家之间的合作,捍卫科学自由,鼓励科学责任,支持科学教育和科学推广,以改善全人类。它是世界上最大的科学和工程学协会的综合科学学会,也是最大的非盈利性国际科技组织,拥有12万成员。


美国科学促进会于1994年成立了政府关系办公室(Office of Government Relations,OGR),政府关系办公室的职能在于将当前科学和技术问题的信息及时、客观地提供给国会,并帮助科学和工程界与立法者良好互动,有效合作。


具体而言,OGR的工作包括发行《国会内的科学和技术》(Science and Technology in Congress), 为国会做声明及陈述(statements and testimony), 出版《与国会打交道:提供给科学家的政策指南》(Working with Congress, A Scientist’s Guide to Policy),借以帮助科学家解决与国会的沟通路径。

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